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|Titel:||Development of artificial single and double reading domains to analyze chromatin modification patterns|
|Zusammenfassung:||The unstructured N-terminal tails of histone proteins carry many different post-translational modifications (PTMs), like methylation, acetylation or phosphorylation. These PTMs can alter the chromatin structure, influence the interaction of adjacent nucleosomes and serve as specific binding sites for histone interacting domains. Currently, the investigation of histone tail PTMs is mainly based on antibodies, however concerns about the specificity of these antibodies and reproducibility of data arouse. Therefore, it was one aim of this thesis to develop alternative approaches to histone tail PTM antibodies. Previous studies already showed that histone modification interacting domains (HiMIDs) can replace histone tail antibodies in a highly effective manner. As part of this work, the TAF3 PHD domain was established as new H3K4me3 specific HiMID. In peptide array binding and Far-western blot assays, the domain showed a specific interaction with H3K4me3 modifications. Also in ChIP like experiments (CIDOP: Chromatin Interacting Domain Precipitation) coupled to qPCR and next generation sequencing, the domain showed a similar performance as validated H3K4me3 antibodies. With the proposal of the histone code hypothesis the question was raised if combinations of histone modifications carry specific biological functions. However, so far, the experimental analysis of the co-occurrence of histone modification on the same nucleosome in a genome-wide manner is a challenging task. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to develop double reading domains in which two histone reading domains are fused together with a flexible linker to achieve simultaneously readout of dual histone tail modifications in a single CIDOP experiment. To validate the concept, the Dnmt3a PWWP domain and the MPP8 Chromo domain were fused together and their specific recognitions of H3K36me2/3 and H3K9me3 histone tail modifications were analyzed. Biochemical investigations like peptide arrays, Far-western blot and western blot experiments showed that both domains specifically interact with their targets and preferentially interact with double modified chromatin. Additionally, the preferred interaction with double modified chromatin could be further verified with binding pocket mutants and methyl-lysine analogues. The newly generated double domain was used in chromatin precipitation experiments to identify genome regions where both modifications are present. The genome-wide distribution of the H3K36me2/3-H3K9me3 showed that this combination of histone marks represents a novel bivalent chromatin state, which is associated with weakly transcribed genes and is enriched for binding sites of ZNF274 and SetDB1. Also in this work, mixed peptide arrays were introduced as new screening method for the efficient analysis of double reading domains. The naturally occurring double reading domain of the BPTF protein was used to demonstrate the capability of this new screening tool. BPTF contains a PHD domain, which binds to H3K4me3 and a Bromo domain, which interacts with acetyl groups of the H4 tail. Synergistic binding to both peptides was shown using the newly developed mixed peptide arrays. Additionally, in the course of this work mixed peptide arrays were used to optimize several of the designed double reading domains. Furthermore, some other double reading domains were generated in this work, like PWWP-ATRX, MPP8 Chromo domain-L-double Tudor and CBX7 Chromo domain-L-MPP8 Chromo domain and analyzed for specific dual readout. Also double reading domains with dual specificity for DNA methylation and histone marks were generated. The firstly used methyl-DNA binding domain of the MBD2 protein showed a strong binding, dominating the effect of the HiMIDs. Therefore, the weaker but still specific methyl-DNA binding domain of the MBD1 protein was used. First experiments with this new fusion constructs showed a simultaneously interaction with chromatin which is associated with DNA methylation and histone PTMs. In summary, the studies with double reading domains showed that with this novel method precipitation of double modified chromatin is possible and that the genome-wide investigation of newly studied bivalent chromatin states is feasible. Therefore, this novel approach makes it possible to analyze many different combinations of histone modifications, investigate their influence on chromatin and gain a deeper understanding of the biological role behind histone tail modification patterns.|
|Enthalten in den Sammlungen:||04 Fakultät Energie-, Verfahrens- und Biotechnik|
Dateien zu dieser Ressource:
|PHD Thesis Rebekka Mauser.pdf||4,77 MB||Adobe PDF||Öffnen/Anzeigen|
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