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Authors: Fleischer, Lukas
Title: Algorithms and complexity results for finite semigroups
Issue Date: 2019 Dissertation 100
Abstract: We consider the complexity of decision problems for regular languages given as recognizing morphisms to finite semigroups. We describe efficient algorithms for testing language emptiness, universality, inclusion, equivalence and finiteness, as well as intersection non-emptiness. Some of these algorithms have sublinear running time and are therefore implemented on random-access Turing machines or Boolean circuits. These algorithms are complemented by lower bounds. We give completeness results for the general case and also investigate restrictions to certain varieties of finite semigroups. Except for intersection non-emptiness, the problems mentioned above are shown to be closely connected to the Cayley semigroup membership problem, i.e., membership of an element to a subsemigroup given by a multiplication table and a set of generators. Therefore, the complexity of this problem is one of the main topics of this thesis. In many (but not all) cases, efficient algorithms for Cayley semigroup membership are based on the existence of succinct representations of semigroup elements over a given set of generators. These representations are algebraic circuits, also referred to as straight-line programs. As a compressibility measure for such representations within specific classes of finite semigroups, we introduce a framework called circuits properties. We give algebraic characterizations of certain classes of circuits properties and derive complexity results. As a byproduct, a generalization of a long-standing open problem in complexity theory is resolved. For intersection non-emptiness, a similar tool called product circuits properties is used. We provide completeness results for the problem of deciding membership to varieties of finite semigroups and to varieties of languages. We show that many varieties, which were previously known to be decidable in polynomial time, are actually in DLOGTIME-uniform AC^0. The key ingredient is definability of varieties by first-order formulas. Combining our results with known lower bounds for deciding Parity, we also present a novel technique to prove that a specific variety cannot be defined by first-order formulas with multiplication. Since such formulas are more expressive than finite sets of ω-identities, this implies non-definability by finite sets of ω-identities.
Appears in Collections:05 Fakultät Informatik, Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik

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