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Authors: Schad, Kathrin
Welti, Dominic
Birke, Kai Peter
Title: Proof of concept : the GREENcell : a lithium cell with a F-, Ni- and Co-Free cathode and stabilized in-situ LiAl alloy anode
Issue Date: 2023 Zeitschriftenartikel 18 Batteries 9 (2023), No. 453
ISSN: 2313-0105
Abstract: Given the rising upscaling trend in lithium-ion battery (LiB) production, there is a growing emphasis on the environmental and economic impacts alongside the high energy density demands. The cost and environmental impact of battery production primarily arise from the critical elements Ni, Co, and F. This drives the exploration of Ni-free and Co-free cathode alternatives such as LiMn 2O 4 (LMO) and LiFePO 4 (LFP). However, the absence of Ni and Co results in reduced capacity and insufficient cyclic stability, particularly in the case of LMO due to Mn dissolution. To compensate for both low cathode capacitance and low cycle stability, we propose the GREENcell, a lithium cell combining a F-free polyisobutene (PIB) binder-based LMO cathode with a stabilized in -situ LiAL alloy anode. A LiAl alloy anode with the chemical composition of LiAl already shows a theoretical capacity of 993 Ah·kg−1. Therefore, it promises extraordinarily higher energy densities compared to a commercial graphite anode with a capacity of 372 Ah·kg−1. Following an iterative development process, different optimization strategies, especially those targeting the stability of the Al-based anode, were evaluated. During Al foil selection, foil purity and thickness could be identified as two of the dominant influencing parameters. A pressed-in stainless steel mesh provides both mechanical stability to the anode and facilitates alloy formation by breaking up the Al oxide layer beforehand. Additionally, a binder-stabilized Al oxide or silicate layer is pre-coated on the Al surface, posing as a SEI-precursor and ensuring a uniform liquid electrolyte distribution at the phase boundary. Employing a commercially available Si-containing Al alloy mitigated the mechanical degradation of the anode, yielding a favorable impact on long-term stability. The applicability of the novel optimized GREENcell is demonstrated using laboratory coin cells with LMO and LFP as the cathode. As a result, the functionality of the GREENcell was demonstrated for the first time, and thanks to the anode stabilization strategies, a capacity retention of >70% after 200 was achieved, representing an increase of 32.6% compared to the initial Al foil.
Appears in Collections:05 Fakultät Informatik, Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik

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