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Authors: Schäfer, Micha
Title: Modeling and simulation of closed low-pressure adsorbers for thermal energy storage
Other Titles: Modellierung und Simulation von geschlossenen Niederdruckadsorbern zur thermischen Energiespeicherung
Issue Date: 2019 Dissertation xiv, 99
Abstract: Closed low-pressure adsorption systems can be applied for thermal energy storage. Their performance is determined by the mass and heat transport processes in the adsorber. Therefore, thorough knowledge of these transport processes is required for further storage development. The present thesis contributes to this by providing detailed models of closed low-pressure adsorbers and by conducting simulations over a broad range of parameters and configurations. The focus is on adsorbers of larger scale (length L = 0.1 . . . 1 m) and on the discharging process. As the adsorption pair, binderless zeolite 13X with water is examined. The models are developed in a stepwise manner from pore to storage scale. The Finite-Difference-Method is implemented to numerically solve the models. Simulations are conducted for defined reference cases as well as over a broad range of geometric and process parameters. The reference cases are analyzed in detail to gain a better understanding of the transport processes. Furthermore, the results are analyzed with respect to two particular modeling aspects: equilibrium assumptions and rarefaction effects (e. g. slip effect). With respect to the application, the discharging performance is analyzed in terms of thermal power and a defined discharging degree. Both the adsorber and the adsorbent configurations are varied. In addition, the effect of the discharging conditions is evaluated. Finally, one exemplary charging process is examined. The detailed analysis of the reference cases reveals that the mass and heat transport and the adsorption processes are strongly coupled and can only be understood in their interaction. For onedimensional adsorber configurations, that is the mass and heat transport are in the same direction, the discharging process is generally limited by the heat transport. This leads to insufficient thermal power and unsuitable discharging durations of up to one year. In contrast, for two-dimensional adsorber configurations, that is the mass and heat transport are in perpendicular directions, the discharging process can be limited either by the mass or heat transport or by the adsorption. The limitation depends on the configuration of the adsorber and adsorbent. Moreover, the twodimensional adsorber configurations can provide sufficient thermal power. With respect to the modeling, it is found that the assumption of a uniform pressure distribution is applicable for one-dimensional adsorber configurations. In contrast, for two-dimensional configurations, no equilibrium assumptions can be applied in general. However, for powder adsorbent it is always valid to assume local adsorption equilibrium. Regarding the rarefaction effects in twodimensional adsorber configurations with honeycombs and granules, the slip effect is relevant for small channel and particle diameters (d = 1 mm). For adsorbers with powder adsorbent, the reduction of the effective heat conductivity due to the rarefaction effect becomes relevant. With respect to the application, the variation of the adsorber configuration shows that the volumetric thermal power generally decreases with increasing adsorber length. Furthermore, the power decreases with increasing width between the parallel heat exchanger plates in the adsorber. Regarding the adsorbent configuration in two-dimensional adsorber configurations, it is found that the volumetric thermal power can be optimized by variation of the channel or particle diameter. Interestingly, the optima for peak and mean power do not coincide. In addition, the discharging degree is found to strongly depend on the discharging conditions in terms of discharging temperature and volume flow of the heat transfer fluid extracting the heat from the adsorber. In general, the discharging degree decreases with increasing discharging temperature. Similarly, the discharging degree decreases with increasing volume flow of the heat transfer fluid. Finally, the analysis of an exemplary charging process revealed that the pressure in the adsorber can increase significantly (> 50%) due to the desorption.
Appears in Collections:04 Fakultät Energie-, Verfahrens- und Biotechnik

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