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Authors: Herlinger, Patrick
Title: High quality graphene for magnetic sensing
Issue Date: 2022 Dissertation 398
Abstract: In this thesis, we investigated the reliable fabrication of high quality graphene and its use as Hall transducer material. Charged impurities and random strain fluctuations were identified as main culprits that deteriorate the electrical properties of graphene devices. It was shown that these extrinsic sources of disorder can be reduced through optimized device processing steps as well as the use of a proper substrate material for graphene such as hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). This insulating material is atomically flat and possesses a very low intrinsic density of charged impurities. By performing Raman spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements, both without and with applied magnetic field, on a large number of different types of graphene devices, it was demonstrated that the encapsulation of graphene between hexagonal boron nitride thin films is the best way to obtain high quality graphene devices. However, even for these hBN-encapsulated devices, we still observed a notable sample-to-sample variation of the electrical properties. Therefore, we developed a post-processing technique that allows us to improve the electrical properties of such devices both significantly and reliably. Since our technique is applied after device fabrication, we could also demonstrate its beneficial effect by comparing one and the same device before and after treatment. We then assessed the application of such high quality graphene as Hall transducer material. The dependencies on and between all relevant operating parameters were explored. This allowed us to develop a deep understanding and empirical model for graphene Hall elements, including the interplay between thermal and 1/f noise in these devices. All key performance indicators for Hall sensors were measured and their typical values reported. For comparable device dimensions, hBN-encapsulated graphene Hall elements were found to have the potential to become a strong competitor to existing materials that are used in today's commercial Hall sensors. Unfortunately, the large-scale fabrication of hBN thin films still remains an unresolved challenge for the industrialization of large area, high quality graphene Hall elements. Also, the Si CMOS integration demands further development. Even though the application of graphene in Hall devices is promising, as shown in this work, this use case alone does likely not justify the significant efforts and investments we expect to be necessary to industrialize the fabrication of high quality graphene devices. Instead, these efforts and costs must be shared by developing a common technology platform for 2D materials that can address several commercially attractive applications where graphene or another 2D material offers superior performance as well. We hope that the insights provided in this work can help to accelerate this process.
Appears in Collections:08 Fakultät Mathematik und Physik

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